About the app The Pain Medicine app from Oxford University Press enables you to read Pain Medicine both online and offline on your iOS device (provided you have a relevant personal subscription, institutional subscription, or society membership). You can: • download issues when you’re online, so that you can read them whether you’re connected to the Internet or not • view the tables of contents for issues when you’re online, whether you have downloaded them yet or not • easily read issues from cover to cover by swiping through articles • download and read advance articles (published ahead of print) • download and read the PDF version of an article • use the in-app search feature • bookmark your favourite articles • add your own notes to articles • share articles by email or on social media About the journal Pain Medicine is a multi-disciplinary journal dedicated to pain clinicians, educators, and researchers with an interest in pain from specialties such as pain medicine, anaesthesiology, family practice, internal medicine, neurology, neurological surgery, orthopaedic spine surgery, psychiatry, and rehabilitation medicine, as well as related health disciplines. This scholarly publication reflects the rapid growth in pain science and practice as well as the field’s need for policy, ethical, and forensic commentary on pain and its management. The journal is published on behalf of the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the Spine Intervention Society, and the Faculty of Pain Medicine of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, by Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.